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The foregoing article was primarily based on a discussion of radiocarbon dating found in The Biblical Chronologist Volume 5, Number 1.
Unfortunately there are no affordable direct methods for dating pigments, except in some cases as we will see later.
Forgers commonly use the bottom of an original broken vessel, which has no commercial value, and make a new fake vessel on top of it.
The TL operator generally takes samples for dating from the bottom, avoiding damage to the image of the artwork.
Instead, a less sophisticated method that would deceive TL testing is to reuse original broken and unmarketable pieces.
The following article is primarily based on a discussion of radiocarbon dating found in The Biblical Chronologist Volume 5, Number 1. Radiocarbon dating is based on a few relatively simple principles. The vast majority of these are C (pronounced "c twelve"), the stable isotope of carbon.
However, cosmic radiation constantly collides with atoms in the upper atmosphere.
Radiocarbon dating works by precisely measuring the ratio of radiocarbon to stable carbon in a sample. The tree-ring chronologies have been constructed by counting the annual rings in living trees and matching patterns in these rings to older wood and dead trees.
By cross-matching tree-ring sequences in individual specimens a long, continuous tree-ring chronology is constructed with very little dating uncertainty. for more information on tree-ring chronologies.) By measuring radiocarbon concentrations in these tree-rings of known age a calibration table is constructed giving the true date of a sample versus its raw radiocarbon date.
The ratio of radiocarbon to stable carbon atoms in the atmosphere has varied in the past.